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Friday, November 27, 2015

Parashat Vayishlach 5776

This source sheet is a series of perspectives on whether or not we are commanded to not eat the sciatic nerve because of Jacob but were commanded so at Sinai (or once we became a nation). Alternatively, maybe Jacob himself was commanded.
בראשית פרשת וישלח פרק לב
Genesis Chapter 32
(32) Then the sun rose for him when P’nuel left and he limped on his side.
(לב) וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ:
(33) Therefore the children of Israel will not eat the sciatic nerve that is on the hollow of the thigh until this day; for he struck the hollow of the thigh of Jacob in the sciatic nerve.
(לג) עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יֹאכְלוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־גִּיד הַנָּשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר עַל־כַּף הַיָּרֵךְ עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כִּי נָגַע בְּכַף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּגִיד הַנָּשֶׁה:

The Mishnah shows the debate play out between Rebbi Yehuda and the anonymous Sages. The former thinks that the sciatic nerve prohibition applies to non-kosher animals since Jacob was commanded not to eat it and he was permitted to eat non-kosher animals. To the Sages, the Jacob connection is merely an etiology.

משנה מסכת חולין פרק ז, משנה ו
Mishnah Tractate Chulin, Chapter 7, Mishnah 6
It applies for kosher animals but not for non-kosher animals.
נוהג בטהורה ואינו נוהג בטמאה
Rebbi Yehuda says, “Even for non-kosher animals.” Said Rebbi Yehuda, “For the sciatic nerve was forbidden from the children of Jacob and [at the time] unkosher animals were still permitted to them.”
רבי יהודה אומר אף בטמאה אמר רבי יהודה והלא מבני יעקב נאסר גיד הנשה ועדיין בהמה טמאה מותרת להן
They said to him, “It was stated at Sinai, but it was written in its place.”
אמרו לו בסיני נאמר אלא שנכתב במקומו:

The midrash in Song of Songs Rabbah sees each major player in Genesis receiving at least one commandment from God. This midrash also breaks down the six commandments given to Adam based on a verse commanding him to eat from the trees of the Garden of Eden. It takes each phrase from that commandment and connects it with another topic of commandment from our texts. This midrash sees the forefathers as guests of God while the nation of Israel as God’s child, hence more commandments given to the latter.
שיר השירים רבה (וילנא) פרשה א
Songs of Songs Rabbah (Vilna Edition), Parasha 1
Rebbi Azariyah and some say it was Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yose son of Rebbi Chaninah and our Rabbis: Rebbi Eliezer says: It is a parable to a king who had a wine cellar. A first guest came, he poured him a glass and gave it to him. A second came and he poured him a glass and gave it to him. When the king’s son came he gave him the entire cellar.
ר' עזריה ואמרי לה ר' אליעזר ורבי יוסי ברבי חנינא ורבנן ר' אליעזר אומר משל למלך שהיה לו מרתף של יין בא אחד אורח ראשון מזג לו את הכוס ונתן לו, ובא השני ומזג לו את הכוס ונתן לו, כיון שבא בנו של מלך נתן לו המרתף כולו
Such it was with Adam who was commanded on seven commandments, as is written, “Then Hashem Elohim commanded to the man saying, ‘From every tree of the garden surely you shall eat,” (Genesis 2:16).
כך אדם הראשון נצטווה על שבע מצות הה"ד ויצו ה' אלהים על האדם לאמר מכל עץ הגן אכול תאכל (בראשית ב:טז)
“Commanded” this is about idolatry, that is what is written, “[Ephraim is oppressed, judgement is crushed], since he walks after commandment,” (Hosea 5:11).  
ויצו זו עבודת כוכבים המד"א [עשוק אפרים רצוץ משפט] הואיל הלך אחרי צו (הושע ה:יא)
“Hashem,” this is blaspheming Hashem, as it says, “One who blasphemes the Name of Hashem shall surely die,” (Leviticus 24:16).
ה' זו קללת השם שנאמר נוקב שם ה' מות יומת (ויקרא כד:טז)
“Elohim”, these are the judges, as it says, “To the Elohim shall go the matter between them,” (Exodus 22:16).
אלהים אלו הדיינים שנא' עד האלהים יבא דבר שניהם (שמות כב:טז)
“To the man,” this is spilling blood, as is written, “One who spills the blood of the man, [by man his blood shall be spilled],” (Genesis 9:6).
על האדם זו שפיכות דמים דכתיב שופך דם האדם [באדם דמו ישפך] (בראשית ט:ו)
“Saying” this is sexual crimes, as is written, “Saying, if a man sends away his wife and she goes from him [then is with another man, shall he return to her again]?” (Jeremiah 3:1)
לאמר זו גלוי עריות דכתיב לאמר הן ישלח איש את אשתו והלכה מאתו [והיתה לאיש-אחר הישוב אליה עוד] (ירמיה ג:א)
“From every tree of the garden,” this is about robbery as is written, “From the tree that I commanded you to not eat from it did you eat?” (Genesis 3:11).
מכל עץ הגן זה הגזל דכתיב מן העץ אשר צויתיך [לבלתי אכל-ממנו אכלת] (בראשית ג:יא)
For Noah a limb from a living animal was added, as is written, “But meat with its life - its blood - [you shall not eat],” (Genesis 9:4).
נח ניתוסף לו אבר מן החי דכתיב אך בשר בנפשו דמו [לא תאכלו] (בראשית ט:ד)
Abraham was commanded on circumcision; Isaac inaugurated it at eight days.
אברהם נצטוה על המילה, יצחק חנכה לשמונה ימים,
Jacob on the sciatic nerve, as it says, “Therefore the children of Israel will not eat the sciatic nerve,” (Genesis 32:33).
יעקב על גיד הנשה שנאמר על כן לא יאכלו בני ישראל את גיד הנשה (בראשית לב:לג)
Judah on levirate marriage, as it says, “Then Judah said to Onen, ‘Go to your brother’s wife and perform levirate marriage with her,’” (Genesis 38:8).
יהודה על היבמה שנא' ויאמר יהודה לאונן בא אל אשת אחיך ויבם אותה (בראשית לח:ח)
Israel on all positive commandments and negative commandments.
ישראל אכל מ"ע =מצות עשה= ומצות ל"ת

Midrash on Proverbs repeats this idea, without the derivations, but it tells us something more. Israel received 248 positive commandments opposite the apparently 248 limbs of the body, each one hoping we perform a commandment with it. The 365 commandments opposite the days of the solar year, with each day hoping we do not transgress on it. I found this interesting since the sciatic nerve is a negative commandment attached to a body part, which somewhat does not fit into either the 248 or 365 in that sense (not that each one of the 248 exactly has one limb to which it belongs).
מדרש משלי (בובר) פרשה לא, סימן כט
Midrash Proverbs (Buber Edition), Parasha 31, Siman 29
The first man was commanded on six commandments, Noah on a limb from a living animal, Abraham on circumcision, Isaac inaugurated it for eight [days], Jacob on the sciatic nerve, Judah on levirate marriage, and Israel on 248 positive commandments opposite the 248 limbs of a man. Each and every limb says to a person, “Please, with me perform this commandment.” And 365 negative commandments opposite the days of the solar year, and each and every day says to a person, “I request from you that on me you do not perform this transgression.”
אדם הראשון נצטווה על שש מצות, נח על אבר מן החי, אברהם על המילה, יצחק חנכו לשמונה, יעקב על גיד הנשה, יהודה על היבמה, ישראל על רמ"ח מצות עשה, כנגד רמ"ח איברים שבאדם, כל אבר ואבר אומר לו לאדם, בבקשה ממך עשה בי מצוה זו, ושס"ה מצות לא תעשה כנגד ימות החמה, וכל יום ויום אומר לאדם אבקש ממך שלא תעשה בי עבירה זו.

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Parashat Vayetze 5776

In our parasha, after Laban pursues a fleeing Jacob and family, the two make a covenant over a pile of stones. The text tells us that Laban gave this pile an Aramaic name, Y’gar Sahaduta, while Jacob gave it an almost equivalent in meaning Hebrew name, Gal-ed. [The interested reader should see the Malbim on the slight difference in meaning between the two phrases.] But why give us the Aramaic? Surely plenty of times in the Torah people say things in other languages, but usually we do not hear of them [with some minor exceptions like Joseph’s Egyptian name]. And if Jacob is giving it essentially the same name in Hebrew, why tell us Laban’s name for it?
בראשית פרשת ויצא פרק לא
Genesis Chapter 31
(44) “And now, come, let us make a covenant, you and I, and it will be a witness between me and you.”
(מד) וְעַתָּה לְכָה נִכְרְתָה בְרִית אֲנִי וָאָתָּה וְהָיָה לְעֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינֶךָ:
(45) Then Jacob took a stone and piled it as a pillar.
(מה) וַיִּקַּח יַעֲקֹב אָבֶן וַיְרִימֶהָ מַצֵּבָה:
(46) Then Jacob said to his brothers, “Collect stones,” then they took stones and made a heap; then they ate there on the pile.
(מו) וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב לְאֶחָיו לִקְטוּ אֲבָנִים וַיִּקְחוּ אֲבָנִים וַיַּעֲשׂוּ־גָל וַיֹּאכְלוּ שָׁם עַל־הַגָּל:
(47) Then Laban called it, “Y’gar Sahaduta,” and Jacob called it Gal’ed.”
(מז) וַיִּקְרָא־לוֹ לָבָן יְגַר שָׂהֲדוּתָא וְיַעֲקֹב קָרָא לוֹ גַּלְעֵד:
(48) Then Laban said, “This heap is a witness between me and you today;” therefore its name is called “Gal’ed”.
(מח) וַיֹּאמֶר לָבָן הַגַּל הַזֶּה עֵד בֵּינִי וּבֵינְךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־כֵּן קָרָא־שְׁמוֹ גַּלְעֵד:

רש"י שם
Rashi on the Above
Y’gar Sahaduta - the translation of Gal’ed.
יגר שהדותא - תרגומו של גלעד:
Gal’ed - heap of witness.
גלעד - גל עד:

From what I found, the commentaries take three general approaches to this Aramaic intrusion: 1. Sometimes we need to hear other languages to understand the origin of a name later on. 2. This is proof that Aramaic is a good language. 3. Aramaic is an awful language that infected our text as proof of Laban’s evil, or perhaps worse.

Unsurprisingly for those who know his commentary, Rashbam takes a very practical approach. Here he is discussing the name “man” given to the heaven descended food the Israelites ate in the desert. He claims the word “man” is Egyptian for “what”.
רשב"ם שמות פרשת בשלח פרק טז
Rashbam on Exodus Chapter 16
Shmuel ben Meir, 11th and 12th Centuries France
And I say, “It is man” is the translation of “who” [“what”?] since it is Egyptian and they were accustomed to that language and it is like “what.” So Moses wrote in that language that they spoke to inform us that therefore the house of Israel call its name “man” since they were confused and said, “man hu” which is like “what is that?”
ואני אומר מן הוא תרגומו של מי [מה?] ולפי שהוא לשון מצרי ובאותו לשון היו רגילין שהוא כמו מה, כתבו משה באותו לשון שאמרו להודיענו שלפיכך ויקראו [בית] ישראל את שמו מן על שהיו תמיהים ואומרים מן הוא כמו מה הוא.
And so too Y’gar Sahaduta. And like it, “He cast a pur, that is a lot,” (Ester 3:7). It only needed to write, “He cast a lot,” since the megillah was written in Hebrew. But to inform us that this is why they called these days, “Purim”, because of the pur. And had it not been written from the beginning in the language that they spoke in that kingdom, we would not know why it was called, “Purim.”
וכן יגר שהדותא. וכמוהו הפיל פור הוא הגורל (אסתר ג:ז). לא היה צריך לכתוב אלא הפיל הגורל הואיל ובלשון הקודש נכתבה המגילה, אלא להודיענו על כן קראו לימים האלה פורים על שם הפור. ואילו לא נכתב מתחילה בלשון שהיו אומרים באותה המלכות, לא היינו יודעים למה נקרא פורים:

Now let us see the Aramaic is good approach. The minor tractate of So’frim seems to place importance on the use of Aramaic here (which it calls תרגום meaning “translation”.) We are not permitted to read this phrase in Hebrew.
מסכתות קטנות מסכת סופרים נוסח הגר"א פרק א, הלכה ט
Minor Tractates, Tractate So’frim (According to the Vilna Gaon), Chapter 1, Law 9
All of the Torah is in Hebrew, except it has in it things in translation. Hebrew that they wrote in translation and translation that they wrote in Hebrew do not read it. And which is in translation? “Y’gar sahaduta” and its fellows.
כל התורה כולה עברית היא, אלא שיש בה דברים של תרגום. עברית שכתבו תרגום ותרגום שכתבו עברית אל יקרא בו. ואיזהו תרגום? יגר שהדותא וחביריו.  
And there are those who say that they only spoke about “y’gar sahaduta” and “gal-ed” which are two languages: Hebrew and translation. One should not switch them.
ויש אומרים לא דברו אלא על יגר שהדותא וגלעד שהם שתי לשונות של עברית ותרגום שלא יהפכם.
The midrash below presents the use of Aramaic as a way for God to show us the need to respect that language. In all three verses cited the verses could have been written in Hebrew just as the Persian conversations in Ester are in Hebrew, or the Egyptian conversations in Genesis and Exodus are in Hebrew. Instead, it chose to write in Aramaic as a lesson. [Two notes: one is that the text refers to Aramaic as “Persian” [פרסי] but it clearly means Aramaic. Second: the quote from Daniel is actually the Hebrew part of the verse, but it begins a lengthy section of the book which is almost entirely in Aramaic.]
בראשית רבה (וילנא) פרשת ויצא פרשה עד
Genesis Rabbah (Vilna Edition), Parasha 74
“Then Laban called it Y’gar Sahaduta.” Said Rebbi Shmuel son of Nachman, “This language of Persian should not be trivial in your eyes. For in the Torah, in the Prophets, and in the Writings we find that the Holy One, blessed be He, gives it honor. In the Torah, as it says, “Then Laban called it Y’gar Sahaduta.’ In the prophets, ‘As such you shall say to them,’ (Jermiah 10:11) [written in Armaic]. In the writings, ‘Then the Chaldeans spoke to the king in Aramaic,’ (Daniel 2:4).”
"ויקרא לו לבן יגר שהדותא" , א"ר שמואל בר נחמן אל יהא לשון פרסי הזה קל בעיניך שבתורה בנביאים בכתובים מצינו שהקדוש ב"ה חולק לו כבוד, בתורה ויקרא לו לבן יגר שהדותא, בנביאים "כדנה תאמרון להום וגו'," (ירמיה י:יא) בכתובים "וידברו הכשדים למלך ארמית," (דניאל ב:ד)

The source below from the Palestinian Talmud sees different languages having their own strengths. My parentheticals are based on the P’nei Moshe.
תלמוד ירושלמי (וילנא) מסכת סוטה פרק ז, הלכה ב
Palestinian Talmud (Vilna Edition), Tractate Sotah, Chapter 7, Law 2
אמר ר' יונתן דבית גוברין ארבעה לשונות נאין להשתמש בהן העולם. ואילו הן לעז לזמר רומי לקרב סורסי לאיליי' עברי לדיבור. ויש אומרים אף אשורי לכתב.
Said Rebbi Yonatan of the house of Govrin: There are four languages in the world it is proper to use. And these are they: Loaz [Greek] for song, Latin to draw close, Sursi [Aramaic] for lament, and Hebrew for speech. And there are those who say Assyrian for writing.

Based on our midrash from Genesis Rabbah, the Torah Temimah pretty much puts Aramaic on the same level as Hebrew.
תורה תמימה הערות בראשית פרק לא
Torah Temimah, Notes on Genesis 31
Barukh HaLevi Epstein, 19th and 20th Centuries Lithuania and America
And the matter was quite difficult for me for many years: how do we write a get [bill of divorce] for a women in a mixed language of Hebrew and Aramaic. Do we not hold that a get written in two languages is unsuitable? Until the it was settled for me in the explanation here that there is closeness in linguistics and honor between the two languages of Hebrew and Aramaic. Therefore they are not considered like two independent languages.
וכמה קשה הי' לי הדבר ימים רבים איך אנו כותבין גט אשה בלשון בלול מעברית וארמית, והלא קיי"ל גט הנכתב בשתי לשונות פסול, עד שנתיישב לי לפי המבואר כאן דיש קרבת מקום וכבוד בין לשונות עברית וארמית, ולכן אין נחשבות כשתי לשונות מיוחדות

However, we definitely have the Aramaic is bad approach as well. The Alshekh implies that Laban used Aramaic so the ministering angels would not understand him. Presumably this is because he did not really mean the covenant and therefore the angels could not actually be witnesses.
אלשיך בראשית פרשת ויצא פרק לא
Alshekh, Genesis Chapter 31
Moses Alshekh, 16th Century Turkey
And here Laban spoke in the Aramaic language which is a language reserved for outsiders. For through it the holy angels could not understand him...
והנה לבן אמר בלשון ארמי שהוא לשון מיוחד לחיצונים, שעל כן אין מלאכי הקדש מבינים אותו…
But Jacob called it, “Gal-ed” in the holy language, and in singular language [one word] to hint that Hashem is one and He is the true witness.
אך יעקב קראו גלעד בלשון קדש, ובלשון יחיד, לרמוז אל ה' אחד שהוא העד באמת...

Here we see a source from the Babylonian Talmud explaining that the angels do not understand Aramaic. We also see a commentary explaining why.  Aramaic is not a good language, at least to the angels.
תלמוד בבלי מסכת שבת דף יב עמוד ב
Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Shabbat 12b
Did not Rav Yehuda say, “For sure a person should not make his requests in Aramaic.” And said Rebbi Yochanan, “Anyone who makes his requests in Aramaic, the ministering angels do not attend it [the prayer], for the ministering angels do not understand Aramaic.”
והאמר רב יהודה: לעולם אל ישאל אדם צרכיו בלשון ארמי! ואמר רבי יוחנן: כל השואל צרכיו בלשון ארמי - אין מלאכי השרת נזקקין לו, שאין מלאכי השרת מכירין בלשון ארמי!

ראש יוסף מסכת שבת דף יב עמוד ב
Rosh Yosef on Tractate Shabbat 12b
Yosef Teomim, 18th Century Poland
And the fact that the ministering angels do not attend the prayer with Aramaic, there are those who explain that this language is not good in their eyes.
והא דאין מה"ש נזקקין לארמי יש פירושים שאין טוב בעיניהם זה הלשון

This final source goes even further, blaming Jacob’s causing Aramaic to enter into our Torah as the cause for the descension of his children to Egypt.
חנוכת התורה פרשת כי תבוא
Channukat Ha’Torah, Parashat Ki Tavo
Avraham Yehoshua Heschel, 17th Century Poland
On the verse “An Aramean destroyed my father and he descended to Egpyt,” (Deuteronomy 26:5). There is to explain based on that in the book Galya Razya and these are his words: Since Jacob our father brought the language of translation to the Torah. Laban called it, “Y’gar Sahaduta.” And Jacob called it, “Gal-ed.” Exactly because of this Israel came to exile in Egypt, etc, see there.
בפסוק ארמי אובד אבי וירד מצרימה וגו' (דברים כו:ה). יש לפרש ע"פ מה דאיתא בספר גליא רזיא וז"ל בשביל שהביא יעקב אבינו לשון תרגום בתורה. לבן קראו יגר שהדותא. ויעקב קראו גלעד בשביל כך באו ישראל בגלות מצרימה דוקא וכו' עיין שם.
And there is to say that which the Text said in parashat Va’Yeshev, “Then they lifted their eyes and behold there was a caravan of Ishmaelites coming from Gil-ad, etc,” (Genesis 37:25). It means to say that they saw them coming from Gal-ed since Jacob from Gal-ed in the language of translation into the Torah. For this Joseph was forced to go down to Egypt...
ויש לומר דזה שאמר הכתוב בפרשת וישב וישאו עיניהם ויראו והנה ארחת ישמעאלים באה מגלעד וגו' להוריד מצרימה (בראשית לז:כה). ר"ל שראו שבאו מגלע"ד הואיל שיעקב הביא גלע"ד לשון תרגום בתורה ולכך הוכרח יוסף להוריד מצרימה.
And there is to also explain that that which the writer of the Haggadah said, “‘He descended to Egypt, teaches he was forced by the speech,’” it exactly means to say that since Jacob our father spoke Aramaic with Laban, for this he was forced to descend to Egypt.
ויש לפרש ג"כ דזה שאמר בעל הגדה וירד מצרימה מלמד שהיה אנוס על פי הדיבור דייקא ר"ל בשביל שדיבר יעקב אבינו לשון ארמי עם לבן לכך היה אנוס לירד למצרים:

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Enemies Who We Create

This source sheet is my attempt to find language for having enemies who we may have created. We likely did not mean to create them; we thought we were doing the right thing and misunderstood the implications of our actions. On one hand, even if their creation is our fault it is also be our responsibility to destroy them. On the other hand, it is our responsibility to ensure that we do not create them again. Some of the Rabbinic thinking around Amalek - the nation we are required to wipe out - might fit this pattern.

בראשית פרשת וישלח פרק לו
Genesis Chapter 36
(12) And Timna was the concubine of Eliphaz the son of Esav; then Eliphaz gave birth to Amalek; these are the children of Adah, wife of Esav.
(יב) וְתִמְנַע הָיְתָה פִילֶגֶשׁ לֶאֱלִיפַז בֶּן־עֵשָׂו וַתֵּלֶד לֶאֱלִיפַז אֶת־עֲמָלֵק אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי עָדָה אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו:
(22) And the children of Lotan were Chori and Hemam and the sister of Lotan was Timna.
(כב) וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־לוֹטָן חֹרִי וְהֵימָם וַאֲחוֹת לוֹטָן תִּמְנָע:
(40) And these are the chieftains of Esav according to their family and their geography by their names: chieftain of Timna, chieftain of Alva, chieftain of Y’tet.
(מ) וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת אַלּוּפֵי עֵשָׂו לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִמְקֹמֹתָם בִּשְׁמֹתָם אַלּוּף תִּמְנָע אַלּוּף עַלְוָה אַלּוּף יְתֵת:

שמות פרשת בשלח פרק יז
Exodus Chapter 17
(ח) וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְפִידִם:
(8) Then Amalek came and fought with Israel in R’fidim.

The Torah enjoins us to destroy Amalek. Amalek is the nation who destroyed the weakest among us. This evil cannot be allowed to continue, even and especially when we feel comfortable and without fear.
דברים פרשת כי תצא פרק כה
Deuteronomy Chapter 25
(יז) זָכוֹר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לְךָ עֲמָלֵק בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתְכֶם מִמִּצְרָיִם:
(17) Remember what Amalek did to you on the road in upon your exiting from Egypt.
(יח) אֲשֶׁר קָרְךָ בַּדֶּרֶךְ וַיְזַנֵּב בְּךָ כָּל־הַנֶּחֱשָׁלִים אַחֲרֶיךָ וְאַתָּה עָיֵף וְיָגֵעַ וְלֹא יָרֵא אֱלֹהִים:
(18) That he encountered you on the road and chopped of your tail - all the weak behind you - and you were tired and weary; and he did not fear God.
(יט) וְהָיָה בְּהָנִיחַ יְקֹוָק אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִסָּבִיב בָּאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְקֹוָק־אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ תִּמְחֶה אֶת־זֵכֶר עֲמָלֵק מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם לֹא תִּשְׁכָּח: פ
(19) Then it will be when Hashem your God gives you peace from all of you enemies around the land that Hashem your God gives to you, as inheritance to possess: you shall wipe out the memory of Amalek from under the heaven; do not forget.

Our Rabbis see the creation of Amalek as the fault of our greatest ancestors. This does not undo our requirement to wipe out Amalek. But it does remind us to not push away those who want to join us.
תלמוד בבלי מסכת סנהדרין דף צט עמוד ב
Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 99b
Timnah was the daughter of kings, as it says, “Chieftain of Lotan… chieftain of Timna.” And every “chieftain” is a king without a crown.
תמנע בת מלכים הואי, דכתיב אלוף לוטן אלוף תמנע. וכל אלוף - מלכותא בלא תאגא היא.
She desired to convert. She came to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but they did not accept her. She went and became a concubine to Eliphaz the son of Esav. She said, “It is better to be a handmaiden to this nation and not be a master for another nation.”
בעיא לאיגיורי, באתה אצל אברהם יצחק ויעקב ולא קבלוה, הלכה והיתה פילגש לאליפז בן עשו. אמרה: מוטב תהא שפחה לאומה זו, ולא תהא גבירה לאומה אחרת.
Out of her came Amalek, who afflicted Israel. What is the reason? That it was not necessary to push her away.
נפק מינה עמלק, דצערינהו לישראל. מאי טעמא - דלא איבעי להו לרחקה.

Rav Menashe Klein suggests the forefathers might even have meant well by pushing away Timnah. What they did not realize is that their very actions were the cause of the future they feared. Hopefully we can remember not to repeat that mistake.
שו"ת משנה הלכות חלק ט סימן תה
Responsa of Meshane Halakhot, Part 9, Siman 405
Menashe Klein, 20th Century United States
But the forefathers converted all who came to convert! And perhaps they saw prophetically that Amalek would derive from her. Therefore, they pushed her away.
והרי אבות גיירו כל מי שבא להתגייר ואולי ראו שיצא ממנה עמלק בנבואה ולכן הרחיקוה
But they did not see that it was because of the pushing away that Amalek would emerge.
והם לא ראו שע"י ההרחקה יצא עמלק

“These movements typically originate among provincial elites; men and women filled with hate for the culture of the capital city, and at the same time angered by their exclusion from it.” (From Jowitt, Ken, New World Order: The Leninist Extinction, University of California Press, 1992, pg. 275).